On your wedding day, you intend to respect all these traditions that make you dream! This is how you will proudly wear a beautiful white wedding dress and complete your look on the big day with a refreshing bridal bouquet. Wedding rings will not be missing, nor will the wedding cake or wedding speeches.
If the customs and traditions of marriage interest you, you will certainly want to know more about this ancient tradition, its origins and developments. This is what we invite you to discover today through this little story of marriage.
Each celebration has its traditions! Weddings are no exception and contain stages that cannot be forgotten. A brief overview of the traditions linked to marriage.
The Origin of Marriage
Did you know that the right to marry is a fundamental human right? It is defined by article 12 of the European Convention on Human Rights. It indicates that “from the marriageable age, the man and the woman have the right to marry and to found a family according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right”. However, this has not always been so. From Antiquity to the present day, here is the great story of marriage!
While the same lace wedding dresses were not found at that time as those of our contemporary era, the practice of marriage already existed at that time. In ancient Egypt people married to imitate the deities who almost all went in pairs.
In ancient Greece, the union between man and woman was seen as necessary for the survival of the species. It was then up to the father to choose for his daughter a husband whom she would not meet until her wedding day. Far from original declarations of love and marriage proposals, this is a contract established between two families for their mutual benefits, sealed by the contribution of a dowry from the bride’s family.
In ancient Rome, marriage already knows a series of rituals such as the kidnapping of the bride by the husband’s friends at the end of the wedding feast or the fact of carrying the bride on the doorstep to prevent her from falling, stumbles. The engagement is here more important than the marriage itself and for the first time an iron ring is exchanged, distant ancestor of our current alliances.
Marriage celebrated in Roman society
In Roman society, founded on the family, marriage was one of the duties of the citizen. At that time, marriage was forbidden to slaves and foreigners. The only marriage recognized by law and which legitimizes the couple’s children, the “justae nuptiae” (Righteous Marriage) are reserved for Roman citizens.
Boys marry at the age of 14, and girls 12. A story of marriage based at the time on the dowry and not on love as it is today. In general, the engaged couples only got acquainted with their engagement, religious ritual and legal act.
The history of marriage in Roman times is based on respect for customs: the day before the wedding, the bride offers her dolls to lares (Roman deities). Then, she dresses in her white wedding dress, does her hair and puts on an orange veil, sometimes accompanied by a crown of flowers, jewels, necklaces or gold bracelets. Over her tunic she wears a shawl.
The bride receives the groom and his parents into her family and makes sacrifices and rituals to the gods on the family altar. The ceremony, which takes place the next day, is led by a priest called “augur”. He checks the intestines of sacrificed animals, to be sure that the signs are favorable and that the gods approve of the marriage. For the Romans, religion holds an important place: if the marriage is ominous, it can be postponed or even canceled.
The newlyweds sign a contract (on which the ten witnesses affix their seal) and swear fidelity. Then the father of the bride offers a feast. And you, did you know the origin of the marriage?
Christianity takes hold of the institution of marriage and makes it one of the great sacraments at the same level as baptism or the Eucharist. Contrary to Antiquity where the marriage contract was a private matter, the publication of banns becomes obligatory here, in particular to fight against clandestine marriages.
Marriage underwent several changes during this period and it was not until 1542, on the occasion of the Council of Trent, that it was established that the union must necessarily be celebrated by a parish priest and in the presence of witnesses.
If during Antiquity it was possible to break this commitment, marriage here becomes indissoluble. Religious marriage is the only one that exists, the priests themselves keeping the civil status registers.
Marriage in the days of Christianity
With the advent of Christianity, marriage evolved. It mainly becomes a private ceremony, which takes place at the home of the bride-to-be. Marriage is a mutual commitment. There may be a blessing, but it has no official status.
In 1215, the history of marriage evolves: the Lateran Council allows the Church to restore some order and reduce clandestine or arranged marriages. From now on, the banns must be published for the union to be valid.
Established as a sacrament, marriage is made indissoluble, except by the death of one of the spouses. Another regulation put in place by this council, the free, public and mutual consent of the spouses. It is also necessary to be of the required age to unite. If the rules are not followed, the marriage is void.
It wasn’t until the 16th century that marriage again became the solemn act it was. In fact, in 1563, the Council of Trent returned to marriage its sacred aspect. Cohabitation outside marriage is prohibited. As a result, cohabitation and illegitimate children are becoming rarer.
To be valid, the marriage must be preceded by the publication of the banns. It must be celebrated by a priest, in front of witnesses. The spouses must sign a register. At that time, the Catholic Church was the original entity of marriage: it was the only one to give value and to regulate the union.
Is marriage necessarily celebrated religiously?
Until the French Revolution, the only recognized marriage was religious marriage. The parish registers are then considered as the civil status record of the time.
The law of September 20, 1792 takes again the rules put in place by the Church and establishes the civil marriage, registered in town hall. This is where the history of marriage undergoes a radical change: civil marriage therefore becomes the only one valid before the law. The latter must precede the religious marriage, regardless of the religion practiced. Failure to comply with this rule constitutes an offense.
In 1804, the Napoleonic Civil Code defined the conditions and origin of marriage. Even today, they appear in Title V of Book I of the Civil Code. They mention in particular the qualities and conditions required to be able to unite, the formalities relating to the celebration of marriage, oppositions to marriage, etc.
In the middle of the 20th century, disappeared the text according to which “the husband owes protection to his wife and the wife obedience to her husband”. This in order to achieve recognition of equality between spouses, both in their respective relationships, and with regard to third parties and their children, numerous reforms have been undertaken since 1970.
Today, marriage remains the only institutionalized form of conjugality, even if you can arrange your life as a couple in different ways: common-law, cohabitation or PACS. It is the only solution that allows protection of the law.
If we were already talking about consensual marriage in the Middle Ages, we had to wait until the 18th century to see the emergence of a real idea of free consent and marriage of love. That said, we are still far from bouquets of roses and other love texts, the idea of free consent knowing fierce opponents. We can however speak of the beginnings of a sentimental revolution.
The marriage of love will gradually replace marriage of convenience during the 19th century in the same drive to seek more equality between men and women.
It was also in 1792 that civil marriage was established for the first time and that it became compulsory to unite civilly before being able to unite religiously. It was not until 1884 that divorce became a legal process.
Marriage has always included a set of rights and duties such as fidelity, solidarity and assistance between spouses. While some rules have remained the same over the years, others have evolved over time, such as the fact that it is now possible for same-sex couples to get married.
This has been the case in France since 2013 and the adoption of Law 2013-404 opening marriage to same-sex couples. Since 1999 it has also been possible for heterosexual and homosexual couples to conclude a PACS (civil solidarity pact), a civil union representing an alternative to marriage or a first step before the latter.
It is also a question here of a contract made up of rights and duties making it possible to organize the common life of the couple, in a form however more flexible than that of marriage.
The true origin of wedding traditions
There are many traditions associated with the wedding ceremony. If you are currently organizing your own, you must have thought about it at one time or another! Some are so deeply rooted in the collective imagination that the bride and groom impose a certain pressure on themselves to respect them without even knowing their origin.
The White dress
It is very common to hear that the whiteness of the wedding dress is related to the supposed virginity of the young woman. And this is a mistake! This custom dates back to the year 1840, under the influence of Queen Victoria. While the fashion of the time was based more on voluminous models in bright colors, the Queen of the United Kingdom chose white for her wedding dress, rather than the traditional red of the monarchy. The expression “Victorian-inspired dress” was born, and with it, the legendary white wedding dress, adopted by the vast majority to this day.
The bride’s bouquet
If the bouquet of flowers is the ultimate finishing touch to decorate a bridal look, the tradition is explained by two reasons far from the aesthetic aspect: superstition and bad smell. First of all, in the days of Ancient Greece, brides wore crowns of mint and marigold flower to diffuse its aphrodisiac virtues and thus, drive away evil spirits. Centuries later, during the devastating days of the plague, brides used garlic and dill to mask the smell of sickness during the ceremony.
The bride’s veil
What more romantic moment than when the groom lifts the veil of his future bride? However, that was not always the case! In the days of Ancient Greece, the bride had to wear a veil so as not to display her joy in the eyes of evil spirits who, jealous, were likely to cast some curse on the ongoing union. Worse, not so long ago, women were forced into forced marriages. Thus, men often discovered the appearance of their future wife for the first time, during this crucial moment, and were invited to go out immediately if they were not satisfied with their discovery.
The walk of the father and the bride to the altar
Still in the context of the treatment given to the women of the time, the origins of this tradition are not much more rewarding. There was a time when young girls were supposed to belong to their fathers until the wedding day, when they came under the authority of their husbands. At the end of the path to the altar was therefore carried out the famous exchange, worthy of any commercial agreement. Very romantic isn’t it?
There was a time when bridesmaids were invited to participate in the wedding march for the sole reason of serving as a shield against evil. Indeed, a series of young women, dressed in a similar fashion to the bride, or choosing a different look and dresses, were grouped together in the event of the arrival of evil spirits (again them), in order to be confused with the lucky one in the event of curses. If today the bridesmaids are generally close relatives, handpicked, with the main mission of helping the bride, a few centuries ago, it was a question of potentially sacrificing themselves for her on D-Day is your case, you have won!
Still in relation to the status of women at the time, the role of the witness had absolutely nothing to do with the values of trust and friendship that are granted to her today. The bride-to-be had no decision-making power, let alone in choosing the father of her children. In the event of an act of rebellion on his part, the godfather was there to cover up the matter as quickly as possible. One more reason to conscientiously choose yours today!
Sending the wedding invitation
In the past, each region had its own tradition for announcing future nuptials. In Gascon country, for example, it was the best man who announced the news by humming and each guest then pinned a small bouquet on his jacket. In many other regions, the task fell to the parents of the two bride and groom.
At the end of the 18th century, these regional traditions gradually disappeared to make way for a simpler and faster custom: a “share ticket” announcing the upcoming wedding was left with guests when they were away. The nobility of the time quickly adopted this practice which was democratized at the beginning of the 20th century: the tradition of sending a wedding invitation was born.
The rice throw
When the spouses leave the place of ceremony, the town hall or the church, the guests wait for them outside to celebrate their union with the help of grain of rice. Rice is said to ward off evil spirits. It is therefore customary to launch it on the newlyweds.
This tradition of throwing rice comes from an ancient pagan rite where the seeds were thrown at the newlyweds to directly transmit the strength and fertility they contain. Today, rice is becoming rarer and we opt more for rose petals, bubbles or confetti.
It is usual to see the man kneel down to make his marriage proposal to his beautiful, but what is the meaning? At first, it is a posture that has a spiritual connotation and evokes the traditional position of prayer. It also recalls the time when knights knelt to receive honors from the king. Finally, this posture places the man in a position of abandonment and the woman in a position of dominance. He therefore leaves him the choice of the future of their relationship, the choice to say yes or no.
The origin of wedding dress
The wearing of the white dress for the bride constitutes a custom whose history is closely interwoven with that of marriage in a context of strong cultural influence of the Roman Catholic Church.
Even in the days of our grandmothers and great-grandmothers, their wedding clothes were subject to fashion trends, regardless of the fact that they were completely different from contemporary models, especially when it comes to the color.
In the 15th century, there were no special requirements for wedding attire, the bride-to-be would usually get married in her most recent dress or the one she preferred. What would seem very strange today, is the tendency for the ladies of the feudal aristocracy to place cushions under their dresses, in order to create an imitation of pregnancy, which was apparently very “In”.
Wedding dress in Renaissance
During the Renaissance, the trend was for future brides to wear a red dress. Red being the color of (the devil’s) passion, it was quickly banned by the Church.
Throughout this period European brides preferred colorful wedding attire, with white being an unusual choice for a wedding ceremony. In the Baroque era, gold and yellow were the preferred colors, being symbols of purity and abstinence.
As far back as one can go, during the Roman Empire, it is now recognized that the bride was dressed in a white dress and a crown of orange blossoms. This custom was obviously forgotten in Medieval times. Depending on historians, this tradition was taken up: either by Anne of Brittany in 1491 who by choosing a white dress wanted to affirm her virginity (she had been married by proxy 1 year before, in 1790, to Maximilien I), or around the mid-eighteenth century (1750) when women, for their marriage, dressed in white to mark their virginity, taking precedence over bourgeois rather than aristocratic values.
The 19th century, birth of the white wedding dress as a tradition
Following stories of Queen Victoria’s wedding, other European figures have followed suit. The new robes were luxurious: whiten clothes was not obvious to 19 th century, and the white robes were difficult to keep in condition. Unlike today, wedding dresses were worn many times in a lifetime; even Queen Victoria had put it on again for other occasions. As white dresses gained popularity for weddings, they also took on a new symbolic dimension – associated with purity and innocence, as well as wealth. White also looked good on early photographs that were black and white or sepia.
Hollywood wedding performances, along with the speed and ease with which people could view images of celebrity weddings, helped anchor the idea that marriage required a white dress. In 1956, video footage and photos of Grace Kelly in her wedding dress – made of lace, silk, pearls, and tulle – quickly toured the world. In 1981, 750 million people watched Charles, Prince of Wales, marry Lady Diana Spencer in an ivory-colored silk taffeta dress with a seven-meter-long train, signed by David and Elizabeth Emanuel. Most recently, the Alexander McQueen dress made by Sarah Burtonfor, Kate Middleton, and the Givenchy dress designed by Clare Waight Keller for Meghan Markle immediately caught on.
White anyway takes the lead as THE color for the bride with the advent of the 20th century and its position was not challenged for nearly 100 years. Fashion historians are convinced that the color of snow owes its popularity to ancient marble statues discovered during excavations around Pompey and various Greek islands. These discoveries had a significant impact on the fashion of white and remains the color of choice for the majority of brides around the world.
In the 1920s and 1930s the legendary Coco Chanel drastically shortened the length of dresses and endorsed the fashion for long-sleeved dresses.
In the 1950s, Christian Dior brought back the corset, but it was only 10 years later that the skirts shortened to the knees or even above. In the late 1960s, rebellious young couples tended to shy away from marriage traditions. Many brides at the time preferred to say goodbye to lace and flamboyance, and got married in colorful outfits instead of traditional white wedding dresses.
We must keep in mind that over the centuries fashions but also traditions have strongly influenced the outfit of the bride and groom.
Wedding dresses that have become the highlight of fashion shows
Added to this is the tradition of closing fashion shows with a white wedding dress. Designers had already been making wedding dresses for private clients for a long time, and during the first half of the 20th century some of them appeared on the parades of the summer collections. This is particularly the case with the white wedding dress imagined by Jeanne Lanvin for the wedding of her daughter Marguerite Marie-Blanche to Count Jean de Polignac in 1924.
The tendency to end a parade with a white wedding dress dates back to the 1940s or 1950s. In any case, the tradition was already well established in 1957 – an article in American Vogue from April 1957 relates that ” the Parisian spring collections … Usually end with the presentation of a wedding dress “. Some of them caused a sensation, like the cocoon dress by Yves Saint Laurent in 1965, and have become iconic.
A few recent celebrity weddings, however, could lead to a break with tradition. Reese Witherspoon’s soft pink dress at her wedding in 2011 boosted sales of pastel-hued wedding dresses in some of the top bridal shops in the United States. While on the catwalks, Adut Akech closed the Chanel Haute Couture fall-winter 2018 show with a two-piece mint tweed suit. Almost 180 years after Queen Victoria’s wedding, it may be time to bring some color to the wedding.
The color white, a symbol of virginity conveyed by the church
Nowadays, even if fantasy is allowed, the wedding dress is mostly in white or ecru tones. Where does the tradition of this color historically come from for the holding of the conjugal union? In a large number of cultures such as China or Africa, the color white is associated with mourning and death. The meaning of white has its origin in our Western society and in particular the influence of the Church.
It’s from the Empire and especially the late nineteenth century, the white is necessary, even if it was Mary I (known as “Mary 1 st of Scotland) who was the first to wear a dress white when he married Francois II in 1558. The reason was simple: white was the color of his family, the Dukes of Guise.
White is a symbol of purity, chastity and innocence. Even if a good number of women cannot afford a white dress, it is therefore a way of showing its virtue in broad daylight, for young girls of good family.
It is really from 1840 that the white dress becomes a tradition, following the marriage of Queen Victoria. This trend will quickly spread in wealthy circles and then become an institution in all classes, during the twentieth century.
The most beautiful celebrity wedding dresses
Looking for the perfect wedding dress for your union? Are you hesitating between a traditional or original wedding dress, in lace or satin, strapless or long-sleeved? To find your style, allow yourself to dream by taking a look at celebrity weddings, which very often prove to be good sources of inspiration. From Meghan Markle to Kate Moss, via Solange Knowles or Hillary Duff… the stars are radiant in their wedding dresses, often signed by great designers. A quick overview of the most beautiful wedding dresses worn by celebrities!
Sophie Turner’s wedding dress
The actress Sophie Turner (Sansa in Game of Thrones) married Joe Jonas on June 29, 2019. For the occasion, the beautiful redhead wore a magnificent low-cut and cinched princess dress, signed Nicolas Ghesquières.
Caroline Receveur’s wedding dress
For her intimate and chic wedding with Hugo Philip, on July 10, 2020, Caroline Receveur proudly wore a dress from her own brand RECC Paris. The dress was made to measure and revealed with a pretty wrap-around neckline and beautiful long sleeves.
Nicky Hilton wedding dress
When she said yes to wealthy heir James Rothschild in July 2015, Nicky Hilton dazzled the planet in a wedding dress by Valentino Haute Couture. The dress, in ivory and silver guipure embroidered with crystals, was specially designed for her by Maria Grazia Chiure and Pierpaolo Piccioli. A touch of vintage for a resolutely modern wedding dress.
Kate Middleton wedding dress
In April 2011, the wedding of Prince William and commoner Kate Middleton caught the eye of the world. That day, the Duchess of Cambridge wore a sumptuous wedding dress signed Sarah Burton, the artistic director of the house of Alexander McQueen. The creation, made from six different lace patterns, was adorned with symbols in homage to the United Kingdom. A blend of tradition and modernity for an exceptional result!
Kate Moss wedding dress
It is in a creation of John Galliano that Kate Moss engaged on July 1, 2011 to guitarist John Hince. For the big day, “La Brindille” had bet on a bohemian chic look and all the elements were there: transparency, vintage veil decorated with flowers and natural makeup.
Heidi Klum wedding dress
Married on August 3, 2019 to Tom Kaulitz, Heidi Klum wore a magnificent wedding dress with a bohemian spirit, signed Valentino. Bare shoulders, vaporous material, train and veil in the hair were beautifully brought together for the occasion!
Hilary Duff wedding dress
We fell in love with the wedding dress that Hilary Duff wore during her union with Matthew Koma, on December 21, 2019. A made -to-measure dress by Jenny Packham with a boat neck, epaulettes, a magnificent halterneck and sleeves open extending into a train. Chic, simple and effective!
Meghan Markle’s wedding dress
On April 19, 2018, all eyes were on Harry and Meghan Markle’s princely wedding. Her wedding dress was designed by Claire Waight Keller from Givenchy. Aside from her bare shoulders – which goes beyond protocol – it is a minimalist white dress that Meghan Markle wore at Saint George’s Cathedral in Windsor, accompanied by a five-meter veil embroidered with the 53 states of the Commonwealth. Made in silk cady, her wedding dress exemplifies purity, timelessness and elegance.
Hailey Baldwin wedding dress
On September 30, 2019, Hailey Baldwin and Justin Bieber said yes. For the occasion, the young model wore three different outfits ! The first was a tailor-made creation by Virgil Abloh (artistic director of the men’s line at Louis Vuitton and founder of the Off-White brand). A mermaid dress with bare shoulders, long sleeves and an XXL train, adorned with fine lace and embroidered pearls, all revealing a superb halterneck. For her second wedding outfit, she opted for a very chic and glamorous slit white dress, signed Ralph and Russo. Finally, for the rest of the ceremony, Hailey Baldwin wore a dress designed by Vera Wang, accompanied by shoes unexpected. Instead of the traditional pumps, the model had chosen originality with Nike Air Force 1 sneakers. The best way for the young woman to be comfortable to dance the night away!
Elizabeth Taylor wedding dress
On May 6, 1950, American actress Elizabeth Taylor married hotelier Conrad Hilton. It is in a sensually corseted dress that Liz Taylor says yes to her first husband in the heights of Los Angeles. This sublime wedding dress was imagined and created by the American costume designer Helen Rose. The model is adorned with a graceful high collar made of lace, extending over the bust and revealing the neckline. The voluminous over-skirt of the dress brings a pin-up touch.
Pippa Middleton wedding dress
Pippa Middleton married multimillionaire James Matthews on May 20, 2017, in a traditional British ceremony. Kate’s sister wore a white lace wedding dress, with a heart-shaped back neckline, an elegant and sophisticated funnel neck, and very short sleeves. This gorgeous dress was designed by Giles Deacon.
11 Wedding traditions you need to know around the world
The wedding traditions around the world vary in different countries and eras. Customs are preserved and passed down in many cultures, from dresses with the ancestral origins of certain African bride-to-be to brides who bless their single friends in Brazil. We brings you a world tour of wedding traditions from around the world.
In Brazil, it is customary for brides to write the names of their single female friends on the hem of their wedding dress (Greek brides do this too, but on the soles of their shoes). This little blessing is intended to bring them good luck and if possible to help them find a husband. The Brazilian bride also wears golden shoes which are then put on the dance floor during the brides dance for guests to slip money into.
In Nigeria, what matters most is the fabric. Nigerian brides love to change their outfits dramatically during their wedding. How? ‘Or’ What ? They dress for several ceremonies in different dresses related to their ancestors. The outfits are made in aso oke , a handmade fabric representing symbols of the tribe of the bride’s family or that of the groom but also of the two intertwined. The fabric and the regularity of the colors are of paramount importance: the couple gives their dress code, an aso ebi, which the guests must also adopt.
In Austria, marriages are explosive. In the regions of Salzkammergut, Tyrol and Styria, the wedding custom involves waking the bride on D-Day with a gunshot or firecrackers. Neighbors and friends are behind it, outside the house, to scare off evil spirits.
The sake ceremony called san san kudo (meaning “three three nine times”) is one of the oldest traditions in Japan, dating back to the 17th century. Rather than exchanging vows, the spouses and their parents drink sake, three times each, from three bowls of different sizes. The first round represents the alliance between the two families. The next three sips symbolize hatred, passion and ignorance. The last three sips symbolize liberation from old sins. The three is a lucky number and these nine sips are therefore intended to attract triple happiness.
From very ancient traditions, henna, which is believed to bring good luck, plays a special role in the Tunisian wedding ceremony. Before saying “yes” to each other, the couple is celebrated during the six days preceding the big day. In the first henna ceremony, the paste is applied in intricate patterns of flowers and butterflies to the bride’s hands and feet by a woman in her family. The harkous ceremony takes place the next day: henna is applied again while musicians play traditional songs.
In some areas, the Russians accompany the high dowries with an abduction of the future bride by her parents. The goal ? Her future husband must then take up a series of challenges designed by his future in-laws to find her, that is to say the vykup nevesty (“payment of the ransom”), and thus prove his love. If he does not manage to meet all the challenges, the bride-to-be pays the bridesmaids in flowers, chocolate, or cash.
Superstitious when it comes to marriage, Italians avoid getting married on Tuesday (which is dedicated to the god of war) or Friday, which is considered the day when evil spirits were created. Also avoid the months of May and August, as well as the pre-Christmas period and Lent. To end on a lighter note, among the wedding traditions in Italy, one of them consists in surprising the bride with a serenata: the groom is then under the balcony of his beautiful the night before the wedding.
The current weddings in Mexico mix recent and ancient traditions, but el lazo, the wedding lasso remains a ritual common to these customs. A long cord resembling a rosary of flowers, or pearls, is passed around the shoulders of the bride and groom by their padrinos (godfathers and godmothers) just after their wedding vows. Traditionally, godparents are chosen for their experience and their success in their own relationship: it is bad luck to choose a single woman to place the lasso.
The mourning choir is the originality of the wedding custom among the Tujia, a people of China. “Bridegroom crying” is a tradition in which the bride-to-be cries to symbolize her grief at leaving home and her gratitude to her parents. Often the bride-to-be begins to cry a month before her wedding, and mothers, grandmothers, sisters and aunts join in the ceremony.
A few days before their wedding, brides from the Indian state of West Bengal and neighboring Bangladesh take part in the ritual of gaye holud, literally translated as ” turmeric on the body “. The event takes place at the bride’s home: she and her family grind turmeric with a mortar and a paste pestle which they apply to the bride’s body and face. Renowned for its anti-inflammatory and anti-aging properties, turmeric helps brighten the bride’s skin tone before the big day.
English wedding folklore has it that a bride who wears ” something new, something old, something borrowed, something blue and a sixpence coin in her shoe ” will have a happy marriage. This tradition, which has spread to America, says that the old object is a blessing for the bride’s future child, that the object borrowed from a happy bride will bring good luck, and that the new object promises a bright future. As for blue, it represents loyalty, and the coin is believed to bring prosperity.