What was fashionable yesterday, what was fashionable today… To understand an era, it is enough to focus on trends. The evolution of fashion is in constant ferment. The fashion today is not the same as fashion yesterday. In any case, fashion changes year after year, to create the need for new consumption, but sometimes it re-proposes trends already in vogue to those of the past. Fashion is influenced by society, by the events that determine not only the way of life, but also that of dressing, make-up, hair styling.
There have been several transformations that have led to new trends and the emergence of a woman and men in step with the times. Decade after decade, women and men have continued their battle to achieve equality and fashion has followed this path, becoming part of one of the most effective communication tools and a witness that something was changing.
However, the need of the human species to cover the body has very ancient origins. If we want to start the history of fashion from this first step, we can trace it back to the Paleolithic. Our species, sapiens sapiens, began its evolution about 20,000 years ago. Towards the end of the Pleistocene, humans learn to treat the skins of animals killed in hunting and begin to use them to shelter from the cold of the incipient glaciations. The process is not simple, and to learn how to make decent clothes you have to get to about forty thousand years ago, a time when the first sewing needles, made from animal ivory, also appeared.
Fashion in prehistoric times
The prehistoric women of the Paleolithic era were by no means buried under animal skins. These hackneyed notions are to be forgotten. These ladies of the Stone Age wore much more elaborate clothes, made of intertwining plant fibers. Hats, bands crossed on the chest, fishnet skirts completed their wardrobe … All these details were revealed and confirmed during a discovery, in the Czech Republic, of thirty-six prints of fabric on fragments of clay. Paleontological experts had already spotted these same patterns, representing clothing, engraved on figurines of the time, called by paleontologists “the Venus”. An American specialist, Olga Soffer, paleontologist from the University of Illinois, in the United States, studied over a hundred statuettes to describe the different types of clothing made. The Venus thus provide proof that our distant ancestors knew and wore woven clothes.
The need to wear an item of clothing starts from the Paleolithic, that is, from when our ancestors began to clean the skins using scrapers, creating loose garments that are draped around the body. Subsequently, with the creation of the needles obtained from fish bones or bone fragments, the scraped skins are sewn together. Therefore, furs are no longer just thrown on the body in order to feel less cold but are chosen, treated and sewn together in such a way as to adapt them and make them adhere to the physical structure of individuals by creating primitive tailor-made clothes.
From these rudimentary sartorial productions, in the Neolithic, we move on to the creation of clothes made of fabrics, in fact it is precisely in this period that the first looms are built that allow the weaving of linen and wool yarns with the weft and weave systems ‘warp.
With the spread of fabrics, the use of animal skins is abandoned and more and more materials are used for the creation of clothes which, around the first millennium BC , are produced in linen, cotton, hemp, wool, silk and fine linen. In addition to these innovations in the packaging of clothing, the need to take care of the wardrobe more and more pushes the Phoenicians to dye the fabrics using the purple pigment, obtained by drying the murex. By now dressing up is not just a way to protect yourself from environmental or climatic conditions but mainly determines a symbol of belonging to a group. This need to distinguish themselves decrees the continuous need to improve and innovate more their clothes and therefore pushes the ancient populations, through trade, to import and export foreign customs and traditions. This leads to a mixture of materials, shapes and colors that slowly change the collective clothing, outlining a sartorial melting pot.
The use of accessories
The reasons why prehistoric man adorned himself with ornaments will never be fully defined with certainty. Researchers who have worked on this subject have made many “logical” hypotheses in relation to our culture. The men of prehistory perhaps had others.
Embellishment for a sexual purpose is often cited by scientists because it is a behavior that is still found in today’s societies. However, it is not because we do so that our distant ancestors adhered to the same values! There is a strong risk of ethnocentrism here.
The funeral rite. Here the adornment is considered as a symbol that the deceased takes with him to the grave. If many ornamental objects were found in the graves, most of them were discovered outside of this context. The funeral rite cannot therefore be a comprehensive explanation.
Adornment as a distinction of a social rank, of a conjugal status are plausible but do not necessarily correspond to all cases: “similar” adornments have sometimes been discovered on children, adolescents, adults of both. sexes. The interpretation code for the signs has not yet been determined.
Adornment, ornament could also signify belonging to a community (a clan) or to a ” religion. “. This is quite imaginable and in this case we should find many identical ornaments in one place. Unfortunately, the chances of preserving an item of adornment are low and the probability of finding several in the same place is infinitesimal.
Accessories as a way of communication
All prehistorians agree on one point, adornment is a symbol, a means of communication. Without written language, adornment was certainly the only way to get a message across. But it must also be understood that the symbol transmitted was not necessarily understandable by individuals outside the restricted community concerned. In the same way that an Englishman does not understand Russian, a member of community A may not have given the same meaning to a pierced shell as a member of community B. We cannot talk about language universal.
Fashion is fleeting, it changes with the evolution of behavior, with the evolution of history, which is why I affirm that clothing is a consequence; the mirror of the society in which we live. Then it is interesting to go and discover the habits and customs of our ancestors. Be amazed when some marvelous jewels that belonged to Roman matrons several centuries ago are discovered. To discover that in such distant times, they already knew such precious metals and were masters in certain processes… is in some ways astounding.
European fashion before Christ
In the Mediterranean basin, populations such as Etruscans, Greeks, Romans dressed substantially with the same garments, albeit with some variations. They wore a robe which varied in length according to gender – called chiton in Greece and tunic in Rome; specifically, it was a sort of sleeveless rectangle fastened on the shoulders by fibulae and at the waist by a belt. In archaic times, Greek women also wore the peplosfolded at the top creating a long cape up to the waist. The variety of clothes was given not so much by the cut, but by the ability to create draperies, puffs and folds. To do this, equipment was used, also known by other ancient peoples, which was used to shape the dress. The use of one or more belts, sometimes arranged diagonally, served the same purpose. Connoisseurs of physical prowess and sport, the Greeks preferred clothes that did not constrict the body and that allowed freedom of movement. Over his robe he wore a more or less long and heavy cloak. The most used Greek cloaks were the short and rectangular chlamys, which due to its size was used for riding, and the himation, larger and carried by both sexes, wrapped around the body so as to leave the right shoulder uncovered.
At the time of the first kings, the Romans wore tunics and large cloaks probably of Etruscan origin. As for the man, the dress used in the republican period first and then the imperial was the toga, a huge oval cloak in wool or linen, wrapped around the body to form thick vertical folds that were also used as pockets. This cloak gave the figure the virile and statuary aspect that suited the citizen of powerful Rome, meaning not the one who lived there, but who had received citizenship as an honorary title. The toga experienced a stylistic evolution from the republic to the empire.
Various types were used, from senatorial onesedged by a purple band, to those white worn by those who competed for a political office (hence the word candidate) to those of dark color for those in mourning. In the last period of the empire the toga had become so heavy with embroidery and decorations that it was abandoned in favor of freer and looser cloaks. The conquests in Europe and Asia greatly influenced Roman fashion: breeches and sleeves of oriental origin were introduced. In the late empire narrow sleeves were applied to the tunic, while the dalmatic, a garment probably coming from Dalmatia, had them quite wide.
The clothing of ancient Greece was generally of a very simple character, often consisting of one or more rectangles of cloth that could be sewn or, in the case of a single piece, draped around the body. The main feature of clothing, both in men and women, was that the dress followed the lines of the body without deforming it, as it will happen centuries later in Europe with the introduction of the corset. The only garment that was only part of the women’s wardrobe was the peplum, more used in the Archaic period and replaced by the chitonin the classical age. This kind of costume remained practically unchanged over the centuries, during which only the fabrics, the materials used and the way in which they were worn changed.
With the fall of the Western Roman Empire (Read More) and the advent of the Middle Ages, a cultural closure occurs and it is necessary to wait for the first centuries of the first millennium AD to witness a resumption of trade and therefore a revival of the development of the textile sector. In this period, the use and diffusion of tools that allow greater precision in tailoring, such as the thimble, steel needles and scissors with crossed blades, allow the general quality of the clothes of the less well-off population groups to improve, despite the clothing made of precious materials remain the prerogative of the more affluent classes.
From the early Middle Ages to the 12th century
After the definitive affirmation of Christianity, proclaimed the state religion in 381 AD, there were no substantial changes in fashion for several centuries, and the canons of clothing remained fixed to those of the late Roman era. One of the causes was the wave of economic depression that swept Europe up to the year 1000. The sense of the sacred, very strong in the medieval period, and the resulting condemnation of the flesh, overshadowed the human being as a natural individual. It is no coincidence that contemporary iconography mainly represents the life of Christ and the Saints. The Church recommended the utmost modesty in dress; in his writings St. Jeromehe hurled himself against feminine excesses, while Tertullian defined woman as “the devil’s door”. Also with regard to the man a long controversy arose as to whether or not he should cut the hair (natural gift of the Lord) on his chin and head. Perhaps for these reasons too, for a very long time there was no need for a clear distinction between males and females.
The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries
This period is also called Gothic, a name that for the men of the Renaissance meant barbaric as the works of art did not follow the golden rules of perspective and nature was represented only in a very stylized form. In fact, the Church, despite the internal crises, still had a strong influence on daily life, and man was seen exclusively as a creature who depended in everything on divine power. The municipalities prospered: the first corporations were born, which imposed statutes with strict rules. The most important activities and trades in Italy were based on the refining of fabrics, often coming from abroad, on the tanning of skins and furs or on the weaving of precious drapes. In Florence, the powerful Arte di Calimala imported wool from England and sold it at very high prices. Lucca and Venice were at the center of a valuable textile and tailoring activity. The decorations were often taken from oriental sources, as the trade went as far as India and China, along the famous silk road, bringing new styles and images back to Europe.
The 15th century
This and the following period were called the Renaissance, because art had freed itself from the shackles of the Gothic period. The rebirth of Humanism, the discovery of the Greek and Latin classics, and the passionate study that the artists of the period made of Roman ruins, led to a rediscovery of the centrality of man with respect to the Universe. For the first time, the study of proportions was faced again, aided by the first anatomical dissections, which were forbidden by the Church. One of the earliest drawings representing the perfect proportions of the human body is Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian man in which the figure is inscribed in a square and a circle, the two main geometric shapes closest to perfection.
The sixteenth century
During the sixteenth century the vicissitudes of Italian political life, disputed between France and Spain, and the fall of the peninsula under Spanish influence, ended up influencing fashion which can be divided into two moments, with completely different shapes. In the first half the Renaissance influence again proposed the triumph of the body: the garments began to widen. The long-limbed Gothic type was no longer in fashion, but the round woman like Titian’s Venus. Venice was in particular the Italian city where the female costume expressed itself with greater freedom: deep necklines and elements taken from oriental clothing, such as the first earrings which, as reported by a scandalized chronicler, pierced the ears “like a blackberry”. Some oddities of women’s clothing struck contemporaries: for example, the use of wearing under the skirt, swollen trousers up to the knee, a fashion probably imported by Lucrezia Borgia.
The venetian blinds also dyed their hair Titian red. In France, the use of the French hood spread among the noblewomen, a round-shaped headdress typical of the time that was worn over a linen or silk bonnet, later also introduced in England probably by Anna Bolena: previously in those parts it was always used the gable hood or English hood , which was distinguished from the Frenchfor its triangular shape; however, the gable hood fashion was revived when Jane Seymour ascended the throne only to disappear upon her death. The man tried to accentuate his virility: muscular, with broad shoulders and a full beard, he also showed off his sexual attributes, wearing the braghetta a sort of bulge on the clearly phallic groin. More overlapping dresses continued to be used, often with cut sleeves from which the puffs of the shirt came out; the fur was most evident in the large shawl collars of the overcoats. The most valuable was the lynx, known as the “deer wolf”.
The 17th century
Occupied first by France, then by Spain, Italy began a period of decline that was also reflected in fashion. In fact, the winning nations imposed shapes and colors, and the center of gravity of elegance moved above all to the north. From this period until almost the present day France was the country from which all of Europe, and in particular the nobility, copied clothes. The center of greatest radiation became the king’s court. The period called Baroque began and was characterized by an exuberance of forms and an often eccentric juxtaposition of materials. Spain had less influence, if not for the use, copied above all in Italy, of the black color.
This period was called Baroque, (an uncertain term that indicates extravagant or bizarre) with which we usually define the seventeenth century. The main features of Baroque art were the overabundance of decorations, marbles, stuccos; they wanted the viewer to be amazed and amazed in front of a painting or a building; they wanted to stimulate their imagination, with a strong sense of theatricality. Even the dress was loaded beyond belief, completely losing the sense of essentiality that had been characteristic of the early Renaissance.
The eighteenth century
Also known as baroque or rococo, from the name of decorations in stones and shells then in fashion, the century continued, at least until the French Revolution, to be influenced by the aristocratic fashion of the French court. In Italy the imitation was pushed to the point that even hairdressers and cooks had to have a name or a provenance from beyond the Alps. Towards the end of the century, thanks to the economic power derived from colonialism and the industrial revolution, England became very important for the spread of fashions, especially for men. Throughout the following century and part of the twentieth centurythe elegant men had their clothes and accessories made directly in London. Until the French Revolution, women’s fashion was characterized by light colors, woven flowers and lace. A note of sensual flirtatiousness crept into the costume: plunging necklines, false in the maliciously placed on the breast, bare forearms. However, the figure was rigidly caged from the torso and from the basket, a petticoat of slats whale which gave the dress a flat shape and ovoid.
The 19th century
Nineteenth-century fashion is an expression of the bourgeois class, which after the French revolution conquered political and economic power in Europe, imposing its ideals and its style. It is above all men’s clothing that undergoes a significant and radical change. An austere and rigorous look, with simplified cuts, sturdy cloth fabrics, and minimal decorations, replaced the frivolous Baroque costume; in this way the seriousness of the world of work, practicality, prudence, savings, order were highlighted. The new men’s suit has a homeland: England , which proposed a more practical and civil elegance, influenced by the informal manners, the passion for sport and the outdoor life of the English gentleman.
Two informal clothes were introduced: the tailcoat, adopted for huntingand for life in the countryside, with very set back brims and a high collar. Later it became the uniform of the true gentleman and was worn during the day but especially in the evening, for elegant occasions. The frock coat was initially a riding jacket, a long double-layered jacket open at the back that allowed you to sit comfortably in the saddle.
The twentieth century
Since the days of the Sun King, fashion meant Paris. The fashion of the twentieth century is instead increasingly conveyed by the means of communication and by the technical innovations that are affirmed with cinema, photography, newspapers and television. For this reason the style changes take on a previously unknown speed, especially in the female costume, which completely goes out of the schemes of the previous centuries. The reasons, quite complex, can be summarized in some fundamental points: the struggle of the Suffragettes to obtain the vote of women; their entry into the labor market due to the departure of men to war; the phenomenon of the artistic avant-gardeswhich inspired many coutouriers. At the beginning of the century, La Maison Callot directed by the Gerber sisters and La Maison Jacques Doucet, where Madeleine Vionnet worked, who was later to open her own house, dictated the law.
The 1920s and 1930s
After the end of the First World War, the European scenario changed profoundly. The war had left a traumatized economy and not a few social and psychological problems. Speculators took advantage of this: the great pre-war aristocratic patrimonies disappeared and in their place a new enriched social class advanced and therefore a different clientele for the fashion houses. The worldly circles were frequented by millionaires, psychiatrists, surrealist and cubist painters. American fashions invaded every sector: cocktails and whiskey were drunk, jazz bands and blues proliferated. After four years of deprivation, the joy of living broke out, symbolized by the new, wild dance, the Charleston. Throughout the interwar period, cinema influenced the lifestyle. In Hollywood The star system was born and actors such as Rodolfo Valentino first, Clark Gable, Jean Harlow, Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich then, become models to be imitated.
From World War II to the New Look
In 1939 the German armies invaded Poland. With this act the Second World War began, which ended in 1945 with a terrifying toll of death and destruction. The first two years of the conflict did not produce notable effects in the high fashion sector, but soon the heavy restrictions caused by the war forced governments and tailors to adopt precautionary measures. The invasion of France was seen by Germans as an opportunity to move French fashion houses, many of which had closed in the meantime, to Berlin. Thanks to a patient diplomacy work, the tailor Lucien Lelonghe succeeded in convincing the Germanic High Command that the operation would have deprived Parisian high fashion of freshness and vitality. However, the war crisis inevitably caused the race to save, and for a few years the proposed lines were simple and uninteresting. Nations like England and Italy had to distribute cards in coupons for clothing.
Women’s fashion was simplified, also due to the lack of fabric, especially wool, and leather, which were used to dress the troops at the front. For about four years there were only knee-length skirts, square shoulders, modest fabrics. In America the ladies, not having nylon for the stockings, had the line painted behind the legs. American women, more practical, adopted denim clothes.
Some fashion creators instead used poor materials to create small masterpieces. In Italy, shoes with cork soles or Italic kid soles were created. Forerunner of this kind was Salvatore Ferragamo, born in Bonito, a small village in the province of Avellino and from there emigrated to the United States of America. Meanwhile, in order not to use the wool, which was used by the troops at the front, Lanital was invented, a fabric obtained from casein waste. In the United States, they relied on cheap jeans, while due to the lack of nylon crafty craftsmen invented a new profession by painting the legs of ladies as if they were wearing stockings.
The Second World War caused many states to lose their role as protagonists, while giving way to the United States and the Soviet Union, which divided the world into two spheres of influence. In Europe, the fascination of the American way of life, of its high incomes and its enormous consumption, was intensely felt. Never before have American fashions invaded the old world: cinema and television proposed a way of dressing, talking, dancing and singing that came from overseas. The protagonists were for the first time the teen-agers who distinguished themselves from adults also for clothing: blue jeans, t-shirts, sweaters, leather jackets, looksunkempt or sporty and for men, grease on the head.
The fortune of jeans was an important phenomenon that still influences fashion today. This garment, used since the mid-nineteenth century by the workers, for the strength of its fabric, fastened with double seams and metal rivets, was launched in American universities after the success of The Wild, played by a young and charming Marlon Brando. Even the Elvis Presley phenomenonwith rock ‘n’ roll, its provocative movements and flashy clothes, they thrilled young people. In Europe these ways of dressing and behaving first exploded in youth groups, who found their own identity there. From this moment an important phenomenon began: fashion was imposed by the street people and not only by the great tailors. For the first time in the history of costume, the masses were making an opinion.
The sixties, so restless and provocative, radically changed the morality and lifestyle in which we are still rooted. Despite the economic well-being, increasingly large groups of young people criticized the patriarchal and consumer society, proposing new models. In 1964 the Vietnam War broke out, and the watchwords of the youth groups were peace and love. Meanwhile at the University of Berkeley the unease caused the first student protests.
In 1968 the French May broke out in Europe. The protesters’ uniform was a total rejection of the elite world of fashion: eskimo, scarves, torn jeans, baggy sweaters, tennis shoes. Some garments were borrowed from war uniforms, such as the Montgomery (more properly Duffel Coat), a heavy wool coat closed by frogs, introduced in the equipment of the Royal Navy sailors, which General Montgomery used to wear over the uniform; or the t-shirt, invented by the US Navy as a tank top for soldiers. Young people rose to the forefront of the news and fashion noticed them, even though they rejected it but the consumer society was able to channel the protest and make it marketable.
September 18, 1970. The divorce law came into force in Italy, a symptom of an evident and profound cultural change. In the States, as a reaction to the Vietnam War, Flower Power was born, which had its first, mythical singers at the Woodstock festival gathering.
Born from the innovative ideas that spread in the late sixties, the fashion of the seventies took the form of a real movement. The Hippies wore large and long shirts, transparent tunics, bright colors, giant flowers, jewelry of all kinds and exotic garments. Her hair turned more and more into a tangle of unkempt curls. This slightly ragged look beyond the official fashion became a real anti-fashion, a symbol of freedom.
Even the feminist movement of those years identified with long skirts, dresses bought for a few pennies at the flea markets and clogs. Various political ideas were also often linked to the fashion of that period: for example in Italy the leather jacket, Ray Ban glasses and Lacoste polo shirts were the prerogative of young people on the right, while young people on the left preferred parka. greenworn over jeans, boots similar to ” Clarks Desert Boots”, large sweaters and shoulder bags in canvas or leather.
The 1980s saw a completely new redefinition of the design profession. It was no longer enough to be a good craftsman and create garments of excellent workmanship and quality: following the example of the most sophisticated advertising strategies, it was necessary to give a captivating image of one’s product. The designers had no other choice, also because their success had created real financial empires, where everything that was around the dress was produced. Not just the accessories, but the furnishings of the home itself. The competition, due to globalization, was fierce and every move entrusted to agencies and image curators had to hit the designated target.
The fashion of the eighties was characterized by the cult of success and efficiency. The picture was, however, completed by the subversive tendencies of punks and other groups of urban youth culture. The race for physical fitness also developed, and even for people who were no longer young people created casual clothes taken from sportswear. In this period, fashion definitely became international. The importance of haute couture has been reduced. French, each nation developed a different style; in Europe, in particular, it was Italy, Germany and England, while the United States emerged, with its contemporary classical style, and above all Japan. Little appreciated in their homeland, Japanese designers emigrated to Paris, from which they launched composite lines with impeccable cut and unusual materials.
The success of Made in Italy in this period also derived from skilled marketing strategies. Milan snatched the palm of fashion capital from Florence, Venice and Rome. They became famous designers such as Giorgio Armani, Ottavio Missoni, Gianfranco Ferré, Gianni Versace, Dolce & Gabbana, Miuccia Prada and Krizia. The success of D&G was due to the pop star Madonna, enthusiastic about the erotic chic and scruffy dresses, with black stockings and underwear to wear on display.
Today’s fashion has taken on a totally different aspect, in fact there is much more democratization when it comes to clothing.
Thanks also to the more open mind and the discovery of the different, we can boast a mix of looks and styles that give added value to our society. There is a desire to discover different cultures and customs of other peoples.
Today fashion is constantly evolving and this is also thanks to the advent of social networks that take on a very important role in our daily life. Those who in marketing we define “influencers” have acquired a predominant role in the choice of clothing, influencing women but also men all over the world.
If before fashion was seen as something privileged, now it is certainly within everyone’s reach. The clothes are rarely made to measure with fine and high quality fabrics, but in everyday life, industrial-made clothes with very low quality are preferred, just think of the rapid spread of fast fashion and low cost fashion.
What are the fashion styles?
Clothing undoubtedly expresses our personality and most intimate aspects of each of us, in fact it is also said that the way we dress is our business card and how others interpret us or what we represent in society. But what are the fashion styles? Let’s see them in detail below.
●Romantic and bon ton style : floral prints and pastel colors are a true indicative point of this style, suitable for all ages, simplicity is king, the lines are soft and clean;
●Vintage style: it is the style that recalls past years, which can be the icons of the fifties or sixties, up to the nineties;
●Punk rock style: decidedly rebellious and unconventional, this style is represented by the prevalence of black, studs and aggressive ornamental objects. It is a style used mainly by the musicians and actors of the Eighties;
●Pin up style: a style that recalls the divas of the fifties, is characterized by polka dot prints, low-cut dresses in which the feminine shapes are shown, combined with the inevitable red lipstick;
●Grunge style: it is the classic rebellious look in which denim jackets, punk accessories and combat boots are present;
●Gothic style: not to be confused with the punk style, this has a reminder of the clothes of the Victorian era, but the color he prefers is undoubtedly black;
●Androgynous style: inspired by men’s clothing, born in the 2000s, and represents the emancipation of women. Jackets, and boyfriend jeans are the masters;
●Bohemian or boho chic style: it is a style that is worn only in summer or spring because it includes all those soft and basically fresh, fluttering and floral dresses;
●Ethnic style: a style that recalls the East and South America, geometric prints, earth colors and references to tribal clothes are the strong point of this look;
●Glam style: the charming, sophisticated and classy style, which indicates luxury and high prestige, with classic cut dresses and refined fabrics;
●Sporty glam style: it is the classic look that is a mix of elegant and casual garments, this is undoubtedly the most used style nowadays.
The future of fashion
With the new reality imposed by the coronavirus pandemic, the fashion industry, due to its most vulnerable nature, is one of the most affected. But she is also one of the most likely to reinvent herself and react quickly to the “new normal”. While the duration and severity of the pandemic remains unknown, knowing how to handle this moment and the opportunities that will arise is what companies, influencers, designers and everyone in the fashion world are looking for.
What is the future of fashion?
The world was already showing signs of the changes that needed to be made, and now they are needed. We already know that sustainability is on the right path, and that digital expansion is another necessary solution for the survival of the fashion business. We already know that we need to go the path of sustainability and that companies need to adapt to an environmentally correct format, but it’s a long process. With all the latest developments, there is a need to speed up this process, which is not only long but also expensive, and yet not all businesses will be able to adapt to these changes.
Marc Jacobs says that we are finally going to change this format of so much waste, so many collections. This is an exaggeration that we are currently experiencing, with an average of 6 collections per year. Moreover, this process can lead to the exhaustion of the creative direction. The designer also talks about the fear of getting used to social isolation. This situation risks dehumanizing us, isolating us even more, and this encourages individualism. I think we need to focus on another way and extend humanization like solidarity.
The best fashion brands
The Italian house culminates for the fourth time in a row in first place in the Lyst Index, the ranking of the fashion platform. To develop its quarterly ranking of the most popular brands, Lyst, which purchases products from more than 17,000 brands and stores worldwide, analyzes consumer behavior on its site, their Google searches, the number of mentions and the commitment around these brands on social networks.
During the second quarter, Balmain launched its first sneaker collection, as well as a pop-up store in London where consumers can customize their own shoes. Olivier Rousteing, Creative Director, transformed Balmain’s Spring / Summer 2020 men’s fashion show into a full-fledged music festival.
The Adidas x Yeezy Boost 350 v2 reflective shoes sold out within minutes, in a partnership that is expected to bring in $ 1.3 billion in sales to close the year. Additionally, Kanye West has launched a new incubation program to support young designers.
Never afraid of eccentricity or suggestion, Moschino launched several capsule collections in collaboration with The Sims and Playboy in the last quarter. Moschino notably dressed Taylor Swift in her music video “You Need To Calm Down” .
It was a good season for Moncler. In March, French investment group Eurazeo sold its entire 4.8% stake in Moncler, while Moncler announced a 14% increase in sales in the first quarter of the year.
In April, Adidas announced a new partnership with Beyoncé for a new line with her company, Ivy Park. Beyoncé’s Instagram post announcing the collaboration instantly went viral, reaching two million people in less than an hour.
Originally, Palm Angels was a side project of Moncler Artistic Director Francesco Ragazzi. The brand has today become an authority in the fashion world. In the second quarter of 2019, the brand launched a refreshing skate-inspired collection with Under Armor.
Givenchy received a big boost from celebrities in the last quarter, including Ariana Grande as the new face of the brand, as well as top personalities like Meghan Markle. The company also unveiled a surprise sneaker collection featuring Onitsuka Tiger during its Spring / Summer 2020 fashion show.
Dolce & Gabbana
Dolce & Gabbana became the first luxury company to offer plus sizes up to size 22 in the UK, which is equivalent to a 50 in France. She also launched a new collection of popular summer fragrances.
Burberry has announced an upcoming period of transformation that involves closing 10 of its stores around the world, while committing to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 95% by 2022.
Vetements continued to make headlines with its whimsical and ironic approach to fashion, including transforming a McDonald’s in Paris into a fashion show location. The French company also launched a new shoe with Reebok.
“Stranger Things” actors Keanu Reeves and Finn Wolfhard are the new faces of Saint Laurent in Q2 2019. At the same time, the company opened a new concept store in Paris and announced a 17.5% increase in its sales in the first quarter.
Building on the media success of Season 3 of “Stranger Things,” Nike has partnered with Netflix to create a series-themed collection. The company has also started using plus-size mannequins in its London store, which sparked heated debate on social media after a Guardian column denounced the move as promoting unhealthy lifestyles.
The Italian company focuses on “research and technology applied to materials”. She also announced plans to open a new flagship store in Milan and make improvements to her color-changing parka.
After the death of Karl Lagerfeld, creative director of Chanel, who began his career as a designer at Fendi in the 1960s, the company paid tribute to the fashion mogul. Fendi has also launched two large independent collections, one with British graffiti artist Pref and the other with Luca Guadagnino, director of “Call Me By Your Name”.
Donatella Versace was nominated for a Lifetime Achievement Award at the World Fashion Awards, just as Serena Williams dazzled in a Versace creation at the Met Gala. The company also announced plans to double its annual revenue.
Prada played a major role in sustainable development by officially announcing the company-wide ban on fur, as well as its intention to phase out nylon. In an attempt to overhaul the brand, Prada made major improvements to the customer experience and announced that its annual revenue increased for the first time in four years.
Valentino Creative Director Pierpaolo Piccioli has continued to push the boundaries and mix luxury and streetwear as part of his collaboration with Undercover’s Jun Takahashi.
Gucci, a brand which in recent years has attracted even more millennial and Generation Z consumers, has shown that it continues to be a major player in fashion. (Read Here)
The company achieved 20% revenue growth under the leadership of Creative Director Alessandro Michele, who is widely credited with revitalizing Gucci when he took charge in 2015. Alessandro Michele was also co-chair of Gucci. Met Gala this year, while continuing to innovate with new technology that allows consumers to virtually try on shoes without leaving home.
The 10 best makeup brands on the market
When you are in a perfume store to renew your range of makeup products, you tend to turn only to brands that are very well known. However, there are many brands, American or French, which offer good quality beauty products. It would therefore be interesting to explore other possibilities that may ultimately suit you. So, here are the best makeup brands on the market that will bring you satisfaction!
Bobbi Brown is, without a doubt, one of the brands most recommended by makeup professionals. What stands out most about Bobbi Brown is her mousse texture foundation and blush palettes that adapt to all skin types. It is also one of the beauty companies that offers the widest variety of shades and colors among its products.
When we speak of pioneers in the world of beauty, we cannot fail to mention Laura Mercier. This brand of French origin was created by Michele Mercier, a woman in love of painting that discovered the need for a good lasting makeup.
She is one of the designers who stands out for the quality of her facial products, in particular for her translucent powders, one of her most recognized creations around the world.
It is one of the most consumed professional makeup brands for women looking for the perfect look. The NARS cosmetics are a must for professional makeup artists, who always ensure to include their products to create a perfect canvas on the skin of their models. His Orgasm collection has been one of the most successful and acclaimed.
Another cosmetic company worth mentioning on our list is Urban Decay, a risky, exotic and somewhat exuberant brand. She is known around the world for her eye shadow palette, which offers a wide range of shades that are perfect for creating techniques such as the Smokey Eye.
What makes Clinique unique is its special attention to the needs of sensitive skin. Its products are dermatologically tested and are particularly recommended for people with oily skin or who suffer from acne. It is the favorite of women who want natural and healthy makeup for their skin. Among its flagship products are its allergen-free eyelash masks.
In addition to its cosmetic products, Clinique also offers fresh and long-lasting fragrances that convey a sense of peace and harmony loaded with a floral aroma, such as its Happy fragrance for women.
It has been considered one of the best makeup brands on the market for a few years. MAC Cosmetics, in addition to being creative and innovative, prides itself on having the perfect makeup thanks to its particular dedication to finding the best ingredients and presentations for its products. Her best creations are her compact powder and her mousse foundation that blends perfectly into the skin.
Of all the brands in this Top 10, this one is one of the most accessible, as it can be found in any supermarket or cosmetic store. Maybelline has the best value for money. Their brightly colored lipsticks and eyeliners with a creamy texture are our favorites.
Estée Lauder is a premium makeup brand. What we love most about this stylish French company is that their cosmetics are of the highest quality and are suitable for all skin types and ages.
If you wear makeup from this brand and add Estée Lauder scent to your outfit, all eyes will be on you. We recommend the Pleasures fragrance, a floral fragrance that will give you a romantic and delicate touch.
Europe and America are not the only visionaries in the beauty industry. The exotic and popular Japanese brand Shiseid o is a favorite among fashion professionals. We recommend her famous eyelash curler, an essential beauty product to give a natural and seductive touch to your eyes.
The origin of cosmetics
The use of color and personal grooming has been a ritual since the early days of our history. Carbon black, soot and mineral dust were among the first ingredients that were used to darken or create symbols on the body.
It is in the time of the Egyptians, however, that personal care begins to evolve becoming a real culture. Queen Cleopatra, considered one of the first icons of female beauty ever, used to make up her eyes by darkening them with kohl obtained from burnt resins or coloring them with malachite powder, a green / turquoise colored stone.
Even the perfume was commonly used and was usually used in the form of ointments that were poured … directly on the head! Often, in fact, these were smells that also acted as insect repellents.
Makeup from the XXVI to the XXVIII century
The house of the Tudors and the reign of Elizabeth I of England brought a period of prosperity and appreciation of the cosmetic art. The queen, in fact, started the trend of the very pale look, with porcelain skin that remained popular until 1800. White lead was used to lighten the skin, as well as lead carbonate which, if used for a long time, was toxic and brought significant problems such as scars and, in rare cases, even death.
Elizabeth also used to shave her hairline as having a high forehead seemed to be a characteristic of aristocratic elegance.
The eighteenth century, however, remains emblematic, characterized by a taste for excess of which Marie Antoinette was certainly the forerunner. Famous were his grooming rituals which only the closest favored members had access to. Rose Bertin, her stylist and personal image consultant, also got her the make-up she needed. One of Marie Antoinette’s favorite cosmetics was rouge : a combined product of waxes and carmine (derived from cochineals) which was applied to lips and cheeks to give her the famous look called “white and red”.
The divas of cinema
Throughout history there have been many style diktats, but the advent of cinema and Hollywood stars has changed (almost) everything. The models of previous eras, the royals and goddesses of the paintings, in the 1900s give way to divas, who become true icons of beauty.
Audrey Hepburn, Marilyn Monroe, Greta Garbo: the choice is no longer unique. And also the cosmetic offer begins to expand more and more on the market, offering an ever greater choice.
Marilyn Monroe makeup artist Allan Snyder, aka Whitey , was the forerunner of contouring as it is today. In fact, he blended some darker foundation on some areas of the diva’s face to optically wear it out. “Promise me you’ll put makeup on when I die!” are Marilyn’s words to her makeup artist.
Makeup from 1970 to 2000
Not only cinema, the advent of rock and pop music, television and advertising drastically changed the aesthetic concept of women and, consequently, fashions and trends result in a kaleidoscope of variety.
The 70s were characterized by a hippie taste, with little makeup and hair protagonists, the 80s, with the advent of disco dance, began to require bright, showy and metallic textures. During the 90s and 2000s, on the other hand, extreme tastes and mixtures of styles amalgamated and you could go from makeup / no makeup with tanned skin to dark and gothic-inspired makeup.
The advent of the Internet has brought a mixture of styles and cultures that offers a very wide combination of idols and models of female beauty. Nowadays it is possible, in fact, to choose whether to adopt an “American” make-up if you prefer it rather marked, or “Italian” when you prefer a make-up / not make-up, “French” with red lips and eyeliner .. the variations are endless. Just get inspired by social networks and stars!
One of Jennifer Lopez ‘s beauty secrets for having a golden, blemish-free complexion is a specific sunscreen that she uses all year round. It is also rumored that Beyonce always adds lemon juice to her bathtub to make her skin brighter.